How Motors Work: Learning What Your Options Are in Electric Motors
Motors are one of those things used in practically all walks of life. They are so valuable that some processes and work needed in a specific industry cannot be achieved without them.
In this article, you will be given the basic set of information you need about the types of electric motors and some tips on how you should choose the one that fits your needs for it. In the most generic sense, you should be focusing on answering two questions: which motor type should you choose based on a specific application and which specs matter in the process of choosing that type?
But before we delve into your options, let’s first talk about how motors work. Electric motors work in such a way that electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy in order to create motion. Because there is an interaction between a magnetic field and the winding alternating (AC) or direct (DC) current, force is generated. The moment the strength of the current increases, the strength of the magnetic field also increases.
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In today’s modern world, electric motors have a wide range of applications. In the manufacturing industry, they are usually found in machine and power tools, blowers, pumps, and fans. On the other hand, they also can be used in small applications and projects like in modules with wheels and robotics.
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For DC motors, the most common variants are brushed and brushless. But aside from those two, you also may want to consider lesser known varieties like vibrating, servo, and stepper motors. Brushed DC motors are without a doubt the most common of all because they’re simple and are usually found in stuff we use every single day. The list of things include vehicles, toys, and appliances. This type of electric motor have contact brushes inside them, which in turn is connected to a thing called “commutator” in order to alter current direction. Unlike those used in large industries, DC motors are not costly to produce and are simple to use and control.
Brushless motors on the other hand have permanent magnets in them, located at their rotor assembly. This type of motor is usually found in aircraft and ground vehicle applications, plus they are known for being more efficient and easier to maintain.
Things to Consider When Purchasing a Motor
The four single most important attributes in choosing a motor are current, voltage, torque, and velocity. Current, by definition, is the thing that gives power to the motor. It’s incorrect to obtain too much current because it could result to damaging the motor for good. Voltage meanwhile is for keeping net current flowing in a specific direction and for overcoming back current. Also, the higher the voltage of the motor is the higher the torque becomes. Velocity is also called speed, and it’s honestly the most complex of the four factors to consider and understand; suggesting that you will want to read and study more about it to understand what you need.
So those are for the meantime the things you should be considering when selecting the right motor for your specific project. Now it’s your turn to figure out the other more specific factors to consider.